The effects of physical factors on the storm hydrograph 2 essay

Drainage basins come in a wide assortment of shapes. Vegetation intercepts precipitation and slows the movement of water into river channels. The fall in discharge back to base level is shown in the receding limb.

Surface runoff is much faster than through flow or base flow, so rainwater reaches the river much more quickly, reducing lag time. Storm hydrographs allow us to investigate the relationship between a rainfall event and discharge.

This means infiltration levels decrease and surface runoff increases. Drainage basins with steep sides tend to have shorter lag times than shallower basins. Drainage basins with steep sides tend to have shorter lag times than shallower basins. This is much faster than groundflow, interflow and throughflow so the lag time is reduced.

A storm hydrograph The starting and finishing level show the base flow of a river. The lag time is likely to be greater if the precipitation is snow rather than rain.

This means infiltration levels decrease and surface runnoff increases. Water is also lost due to evaporation and transpiration from the vegetation. This is because snow takes time to melt before the water enters the river channel. The discharge from a drainage basin depends on precipitation, evapotranspiration and storage factors.

Physical and Human Factors that Affect a Storm Hydrograph

Hydrograph before urbanisation Rural areas with predominantly permeable rock increases infiltration and decreases surface runoff. Flood — when the capacity of a river to transport water is exceeded and water flows over its banks. Human Activity Humans will normally cover soil in impermeable materials like tarmac or concrete which will increase surface run off and reduce the amount of water being stored, increasing the peak discharge and reducing the lag time.

This is because all points in the drainage basin are again, roughly equidistant from the river so all the precipitation reaches the river at the same time. The ever so slightly harder questions are the ones that ask you to explain a hydrograph because these require you to think.

Areas that have been urbanised result in an increase in the use of impermeable building materials. Not immediately obvious is the type of storm or precipitation that takes place. For instance if the basin is small it is most likely expected that the rainfall will reach the main channel more rapidly than in a larger basin where the rainfall has more area to cover and further to travel therefore reaching the main channel at a slower rate.

A winter storm i. If a drainage basin has a significant amount of vegetation this will have a significant affect on a storm hydrograph. For instance if the basin is small it is most likely expected that the rainfall will reach the main channel more rapidly than in a larger basin where the rainfall has more area to cover and further to travel therefore reaching the main channel at a slower rate.

As roads, pavements and buildings are constructed the surface becomes impermeable. Key Terms Hydrograph — a graph that shows river discharge and rainfall over time. Physical factors affecting storm hydrographs There is a range of physical factors that affect the shape of a storm hydrograph.Physical Factors Affecting Storm Hydrographs Peak discharge – the point on a flood hydrograph when river discharge is at its greatest.

Peak rainfall - the point on a flood hydrograph when rainfall is at its greatest. Lag time – period of time between the peak rainfall and peak discharge.

The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph Essay

The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph. The Storm Hydrograph refers to graphs that show how a drainage basin responds to a period of rainfall. Free Essay: The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph The Storm Hydrograph refers to graphs that show how a drainage basin responds to a period.

The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph Essay. A.

Discharge & Hydrographs

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Physical factors are the biotic factors which affect organisms and their surroundings, their surroundings in this case being the drainage basin and therefore the storm hydrograph is affected.

We will write a. Discharge & Hydrographs. By Alex Jackson. Last updated on August 2, The discharge of a river (or stream) is the volume of water that flows past a point in the river’s course per second.

Factors Affecting a Storm Hydrograph The Drainage Basin. The shape of a hydrograph is altered by a few different things. One factor is the shape of. The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph Essay The Effects of Physical Factors on the Storm Hydrograph The Storm Hydrograph refers to graphs that show how a drainage basin responds to a .

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The effects of physical factors on the storm hydrograph 2 essay
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